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Koulakov resemble a moving bar of evoked activity discount slimex 10 mg fast delivery, careful observation of the four movies indicates that each bar produces a di¤use wave of activity that generally moves across the cortex in a pattern consistent with the gross visuotopy of the cortex (Tusa et al. This is most likely a manifestation of the larger number of multiunits with a preferred vertical orienta- tion sensitivity seen in the histogram of ﬁgure 3. Finally, it is noted that while most recorded units manifested a preferred orienta- tion (see ﬁgure 3. The movie for each moving bar was not composed exclusively of activity evoked in units with a preference for that particular orientation. Implications for a Visual Prosthesis The data presented in this chapter have relevance for the emerging ﬁeld of sensory and motor neuroprosthetics. While most work in this area is still focused on animal experimentation, researchers are beginning to use electrode arrays to selectively ex- cite and record from neural ensembles in human volunteers as a means to restore lost sensory or motor function (Veraart et al. One example of a sensory application that would use an array of penetrating electrodes such as the UEA is a visual neuroprosthesis. The electrodes in the UEA could provide the means to selectively excite large num- bers of neurons in the visual cortex of individuals with profound blindness. A com- plete cortically based visual neuroprosthesis would consist of a video camera in a pair of eyeglasses and signal-processing electronics to convert the output of the video camera into a signal that could be delivered transdermally to an implanted very large scale integrated stimulator that would be directly interfaced to an electrode array implanted in the visual cortex. While each of the elements in such a visual neuroprosthesis o¤ers signiﬁcant design challenges to the electrical, mechanical, and bioengineer, we believe that there are two main issues that must be resolved before this approach to restoring sight can be entertained seriously. First, the safety of the implanted electrode array and the im- plantation procedure must be rigorously demonstrated in animal studies, and second, the e‰cacy of this implant system must be demonstrated in human volunteers. Spe- ciﬁcally, it must be shown that patterned electrical stimulation of the visual cortex Imaging 2-D Neural Activity Patterns 61 via an array of implanted, penetrating electrodes does evoke discriminable patterned percepts. Much of the animal experimental work we have conducted to date has focused on the former issue. Colleagues have implanted the UEA in the motor cortex of pri- mates that have been trained to play a simple video game. This 3-year recording capability provides a proof-of-concept that the UEA can be implanted safely in the primate cerebral cortex and that it can perform stably over extended periods.
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These sensors purchase 15 mg slimex fast delivery, analyzers, and faces that allow neurons to drive or be driven motors may soon become integrated into neu- by computers and micromachines (Table 4–1). At a minimum, a cortical or subcortical neuronal assembly or they will lessen handicaps by making the envi- along a central or peripheral nerve. Neurons that form of nerves and motor points in muscle to per- a circuit with semiconductor chips2 may fur- mit grasping with a plegic hand or to empty a ther integrate MEMS devices with the nervous neurogenic bladder. Such cyborg-like modules of silicon vices have been created for quadriplegic sub- neurons could partially patch a disconnection jects. Patterns of cerebral electrical activity ex- in a cortical or spinal circuit. Brain-derived signals implanted sensors and stimulators, in online may soon command neuroprostheses. The functional and chemical imaging, in targeted cochlear implant restores hearing for people drug delivery, in tissue engineering, and in 193 194 Neuroscientific Foundations for Rehabilitation Table 4–1. The motor point is the most now, painstaking research and development common site for direct electrical stimulation. Bionics, however, is on the are recruited as current spreads from an elec- threshold of creating devices that find and de- trode. Functional neuromuscular stimulation cipher the neural signals that express cognitive requires an intact motor unit. If anterior horn control over important movements from within cells have been destroyed, roots torn or avulsed, their residual pathways. The nerves and motor points af- fected by complete brachial plexopathies, cen- PERIPHERAL NERVOUS tral cord injuries, and conus/cauda equina SYSTEM DEVICES trauma cannot be activated. The amount of current delivered to a given Functional Neuromuscular region determines the success of muscle con- Stimulation traction.